Children with Dyslexia - Special Language Impairment and Kinetic Skills
The present research aims to investigate the kinetic profile of Greek school children (6-12 years old) with Dyslexia & Specific Language Impairment (SLI) using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, MABC-2, and tool as compared with children in formal education and assess any differences in kinetic profile among subgroups of such children. Participants were two groups of children of which 36 comprised the first group and were diagnosed, either by a Center for Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support (KE.D.D.Y.) or Psychodiagnostic Centers for Special Educational Needs, as children with Dyslexia & Specific Language Impairment (SLI) (average age: 112.05 months). The second group comprised 51 children of the same sex and age without any developmental disorder (average age: 114.55 months). The research was conducted individually at the Center for Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support (KE.D.D.Y.) Thessaloniki II, as well as in Primary and Secondary Schools in the Prefecture of Serres. Statistical analysis was performed by means of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results established statistically significant differences in the general motor score of Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) between the group of children with Dyslexia & Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and the group of children in formal education. In addition, ANOVA established significant differences in hand dexterity, ball skills and balance between the two groups of children with dyslexia & Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and the group of children in formal education. Further analysis established that no significant differences in the general motor score of the test were exhibited among children with Dyslexia & Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Specifically, the group of children with Dyslexia & SLI in our research exhibits Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at a rate (44%) as opposed to children of typical development who exhibit a much lower percentage (12%). Even within the group of Dyslexia & SLI exhibits a DCD, a percentage of children exhibit a DCD risk (22%) while the remainder (33%) does not exhibit any difficulties. On the contrary, children of atypical development exhibit much lower rates, i.e. there is a DCD risk percentage (12%) and another (78%) exhibiting no DCD at all. Within this research framework, the view supported by the contemporary international literature that movement disorders often coexist with Specific Learning Difficulties is established.